Topapi Palace Babusaade (Gate of Felicity)

Bâbüssaâde constitutes the entrance of the Enderûn-ı Hümâyun, the sultan’s private residence, in the grand palace poem and provides the transition from the second courtyard, where many ceremonies were held, to the third courtyard. This area, which has a flamboyant architecture, is also called Akağalar Gate or Arz Gate. The door is located behind the portico in front of the wall separating the two courtyards. Its essence is estimated to be from the period of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror. Later, four columns right in front of the door were removed and a new shape was given here.

The change of Bâbüssaâde’s appearance took place during the reign of Sultan Abdülhamid I (1774-1789). This change was made in 1188 (1774-75) according to the jewel in the inscription in fifteen couplets in verse above the door arch. Above this, Sultan II. With the line of Mahmud, the basmele-i şerife and on the keystone of the arch, Sultan II. Mahmud has a signature. The place lying on the right side of Bâbüssaâde, which is a double door, is the Bâbüssaâde Ağası Office and the Akağalar Ward on the left.

Bâbüssaâde has been the scene of congregation ceremonies of new sultans throughout the Ottoman history. Regardless of the weather conditions, the throne was placed in front of this door and the prince, who would become the sultan, passed through this door and sat on the throne. In this way, his sultanate was officially declared, and the notables of the state swore allegiance to him here. The last sultan who had a juls ceremony here was VI. He became Mehmed (Vahdeddin). On holidays, a throne called “Bayram throne” was placed in front of this door and the sultan was accepting congratulations here. Abdurrahman Şeref Bey writes that this ceremony continued until the first years of Abdülaziz’s reign. In times of war, it was customary for the sultan to hand over the “sancak-ı sharif” to the commander-in-chief, who was serdar. The banner, which was taken out with a special ceremony from the place where it was kept, was placed in a specific place in front of Bâbüssaâde, which is still present today. The top of the nest where the starboard post is nailed to the ground is covered with a marble. In the last revolt of the Janissaries in 1826, the sancak-ı sharif was removed for the last time and it was decided to unite all the people of Istanbul here against the Janissaries, and the “Vak‘a-i Hayriyye”, which started in this way, resulted in the deletion of the Janissaries from history.

Since it started from Enderun Bâbüssaâde, which was considered to be the sultan’s house, nobody could go beyond here. In this regard, R. Ekrem Koçu writes: “The people gave a kind of blessing to the Enderûn-ı Hümâyun to this door opening to the privacy of the sultan. In the Ottoman history, the waves of revolution mostly crossed the Bâb-ı Hümâyun, the great gate of the palace opening to the city, the first courtyard, the Bâbüsselâm, and the second courtyard and stood in front of Bâbüssaâde. Upon entering from Bâbüssaâde … the Supply Room comes across. This is the place where the sultans accepted their viziers, state officials and foreign state ambassadors. According to the protocol, the people who could go to the city could enter Bâbüssaâde, but they could not see any part of Enderun. In a place other than the Chamber of Supply, if he did not have a permit, even the grand vizier could not see the sultan and even the grand viziers could not take their steps from the threshold of Bâbüssaâde before they were accepted to the peace. On the condition that the sultan was declared and invited by name, anybody would be taken in from Bâbüssaâde under strict supervision and the ruler would be taken to the Enderun’s apartment where he was waiting.

It is known that Bâbüssaâde was surpassed twice throughout the Ottoman history. The first of these, in the month of Rajab 1031 (May 1622), Sultan II. There was a revolt against Osman. The rebels who wanted the heads of the Grand Vizier Dilâver Pasha and Defterdar Bâki Pasha and a few more entered the second courtyard and when they did not get a positive answer, they opened the Bâbüssaâde and entered Enderun and made Mustafa I the sultan. For the second time, in 1807, the ruler of Ruse, Alemdar Mustafa Aga (later Pasha), dethroned III. During the attempt to save Selim, Bâbüssaâde was passed. IV. Alemdar had the door closed with the order of Mustafa broken with axes and opened it, but III. He could not save Selim. Again in front of Bâbüssaâde IV. In 1632, Murad was summoned to the pillar three times by the rebel janissaries and the Kapıkulu sipahis. In the first of these (19 Rajab 1041/10 February 1632), the Grand Vizier Hafiz Ahmed Pasha was killed by the rebels right in front of the door.

The portico in front of the Bâbüssaâde was probably changed in 1774, and it had a canopy or canopy that extends into the forward courtyard. However, it is not known what the architecture of this place was before. Since the throne is placed in front of this door during the congregation and eid ceremonies, there should still be a canister on it. Indeed XVI. In a miniature of Hünernâme arranged at the end of the century, the portico arches in front of Bâbüssaâde continued in the same architecture, but the presence of a large fringed lead-covered dome above the entrance is clearly evident. The ceiling of this canopy, which sits on marble columns with a baroque style capital and high pedestal, was previously in the form of a wooden dome,